Lomustine therapy for vincristine-resistant canine transmissible venereal tumor: a case report
PDF (Português (Brasil))


vaginal neoplasia, vincristine-resistant tumor, veterinary oncology, oral chemotherapy.

How to Cite

Decuadro Barboza, A. ., Ruiz Algibay, N. ., Menéndez Caorsi, C., Bartesaghi Villardino, N. ., Amaral Oribe, C. ., Brandl, S. ., & Benech Gulla, A. . (2021). Lomustine therapy for vincristine-resistant canine transmissible venereal tumor: a case report. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 43(1), e001320. https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm001320


Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a transmissible cancer that affects the external genitalia of dogs. In this study, a female canine with CTVT in the vagina was treated with vincristine (0.75 mg/m2; intravenous (IV); weekly for eight cycles), the currently preferred drug for CTVT, but without any progress. Therefore, this case was considered resistant to vincristine, and the preferred alternative chemotherapy, doxorubicin, was suggested. However, based on echocardiographic evidence, the patient could not be administered doxorubicin. Thus, the administration of lomustine was proposed. Although there are no studies to support this decision, the authors based their decision on the fact that lomustine is effective for round cell tumors, and that CTVT belongs to this tumor group. After three doses (60 mg/m2; every 3 weeks) complete remission was achieved. The use of lomustine at a dose of 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for vincristine-resistant CTVT proved to be effective, without any harmful side effects. The treatment is cost-effective and simple to manage.

PDF (Português (Brasil))


Bastan, A., Acar, D. B., & Cengiz, M. (2008). Uterine and ovarian metastasis of transmissible venereal tumor in a bitch. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 32(1), 65-66.

Binkhathlan, Z., & Lavasanifar, A. (2013). P-glycoprotein inhibition as a therapeutic approach for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer: Current status and future perspectives. Current Cancer Drug Targets, 13(3), 326-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/15680096113139990076.

Birhan, G., & Chanie, M. (2015). A review on canine transmissible venereal tumor: From morphologic to biochemical and molecular diagnosis. Academic Journal of Animal Diseases, 4(3), 185-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ajad.2015.4.3.95245.

Boon, A. J. (2011). Ecocardiografía veterinaria (2a ed., 452 p.). Multimedica.

Calvert, C. A., Leifer, C. E., & MacEwen, E. G. (1982). Vincristine for treatment of transmissible venereal tumor in the dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 181, 163-164. PMID: 6749780.

Choi, Y. K., & Kim, C. J. (2002). Sequence analysis of canine LINE-1 elements and p53 gene in canine transmissible venereal tumor. Journal of Veterinary Science (Suwon-si, Korea), 3(4), 285-292. http://dx.doi. org/10.4142/jvs.2002.3.4.285.

Da Silva, D. M., Reusing, M. S. D. O., Franciosi, A. I., Belo, C. E. P., Goncalves, K. A., De Sousa, R. S., & Guerios, S. D. (2014). Treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumor using L-asparaginase, prednisone, and surgery in a clinical chemotherapy-resistant case. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 38(2), 220-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/vet-1309-23.

Das, A. K., Das, U., Das, D., & Sengupta, J. (1990). Histopathological study of canine transmissible venereal tumour. The Indian Veterinary Journal, 67(5), 473-474.

Das, U., & Das, A. K. (2000). Review of canine transmissible venereal sarcoma. Veterinary Research Communications, 24(8), 545-556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006491918910.

Dass, L. L., & Sahay, P. N. (1989). Surgical treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumour a retrospective study. The Indian Veterinary Journal, 66(3), 255-258.

Dobson, J., & Lascelles, D. (2014). Manual de oncología en pequeños animales (3a ed.). Lexus.

Flórez, M. M., Fêo, H. B., Da Silva, G. N., Yamatogi, R. S., Aguiar, A. J., Araújo Junior, J. P., & Rocha, N. S. (2017). Cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis rates and gene expressions of MDR-1, TP53, BCL-2 and BAX in transmissible venereal tumour cells and their association with therapy response. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 15(3), 793-807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12220.

Ganguly, B., Das, U., & Das, A. K. (2013). Canine transmissible venereal tumour: A review. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 14(1), 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12060.

Gaspar, L. F. J., Amaral, A. S. D., Bassani-Silva, S., & Rocha, N. S. (2009). Imunorreatividade à glicoproteína-p nos diferentes tipos citomorfológicos de tumor venéreo transmissível canino. Veterinária em Foco, 6(2), 140-146.

Gaspar, L. F. J., Ferreira, I., Colodel, M. M., Brandao, C. V. S., & Rocha, N. S. (2011). Spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumor: Cell morphology and influence on P-glycoprotein expression. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 34(5), 447-454.

Gerardi, D. G., Tinucci-Costa, M., Silveira, A. C. T., & Moro, J. V. (2014). Expression of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, glutathione-S-transferase pi and p53 in canine transmissible venereal tumor. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 34(1), 71-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2014000100012.

Gonzalez, C. M., Griffey, S. M., Naydan, D. K., Flores, E., Cepeda, R., Cattaneo, G., & Madewell, B. R. (2000). Canine transmissible venereal tumour: A morphological and immunohistochemical study of 11 tumours in growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 122(4), 241-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.1999.0366.

Gurel, A., Kuscu, B., Gulanber, E. G., & Arun, S. S. (2002). Transmissible venereal tumors detected in the extragenital organs of dogs. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 57(1), 23-27.

Gustafson, D. L., & Bailey, D. B. (2020) Cancer chemotherapy. In: D. Vail, D. H. Thamm & J. Liptak. Withrow and MacEwen`s Small Animal Clinical Oncology (6th ed., pp. 181-208). Elsevier.

Hallman, B. E., Hauck, M. L., Williams, L. E., Hess, P. R., & Suter, S. E. (2019). Incidence and risk factors associated with development of clinical cardiotoxicity in dogs receiving doxorubicin. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33(2), 783-791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15414.

Hosoya, K., Kisseberth, W. C., Alvarez, F. J., Lara-Garcia, A., Beamer, G., Stromberg, P. C., & Couto, C. G. (2009). Adjuvant CCNU (lomustine) and prednisone chemotherapy for dogs with incompletely excised grade 2 mast cell tumors. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 45(1), 14-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/0450014.

Idowu, A. L. (1984). A retrospective evaluation of four surgical methods of treating canine transmissible venereal tumour. The Journal of Small Animal Practice, 25(4), 193-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1984.tb00467.x.

Katapodi, M. C., Lee, K. A., Facione, N. C., & Dodd, M. J. (2004). Predictors of perceived breast cancer risk and the relation between perceived risk and breast cancer screening: A meta-analytic review. Preventive Medicine, 38(4), 388-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.11.012.

Kunakornsawat, S., Yippaditr, W., Jamjan, N., Bootcah, R., Netramai, S., Viriyarumpa, J., & Kornkaewrat, K. (2010). Surgical correction of transmissible venereal tumor with vincristine-resistance using episiotomy and vulvovaginoplasty in female and subtotal penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy in male dogs. In Proceedings of the 48th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Kasetsart, 3-5 March, 2010. Subject: Veterinary Medicine. Kasetsart University.

Lorimier, L. P., & Fan, T. M. (2007) Canine transmissible venereal tumor. In S. J. Withrow & D. M. Vail, (Eds.), Small Animal Clinical Oncology (4th ed., pp. 799-803). Elsevier.

Maina, E., Colombo, S., & Stefanello, D. (2014). Multiple cutaneous histiocytomas treated with lomustine in a dog. Veterinary Dermatology, 25(6), 559-e99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12147.

Martins, M. M., De Souza, F., Ferreira, F., & Gobello, C. (2005). The canine transmissible venereal tumor: etiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment. In P. W. Concannon, G. England, J. Verstegen III & C. Linde Forsberg (Eds.), Recent Advances in Small Animal Reproduction. International Veterinary Information Service.

Nak, D., Nak, Y., Cangul, I. T., & Tuna, B. (2005). A clinico-pathological study on the effect of vincristine on transmissible venereal tumour in dogs. Journal of the Veterinary Medicine, Physiology, Pathology. Clinical Medicine, 52, 366-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2005.00743.x.

Ogilvie, G. K., & Moore, A. S. (2008) Tumores del sistema reproductor. In G. K Ogilvie & A. S. Moore. Manejo del Paciente Canino Oncológico: Guía Práctica para la Atención Compasiva (pp. 555-671). Intermédica.

Peixoto, P. V., Teixeira, R. S., Mascarenhas, M. B., Franca, T. N., Azevedo, S. C. S., Reinacher, M., Costa, T. S., & Ramadinha, R. R. (2016). Formas atípicas do tumor venéreo transmissível canino no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38, 101-107.

Reis Filho, N. P., Torres, A., Silva, M., Ventura, R., Basso, K., Ferreira, M., De Nardi, A. B., Floriano, B. P. & Calderón, C. (2020). Transmissible venereal tumor: cell proliferation (agnor) and response to chemotherapy correlated with cytomorphological classification. Ars Veterinaria, 36(2), 140-147.

Rogers, K. S., Walker, M. A., & Dillon, H. B. (1998). Transmissible venereal tumor: A retrospective study of 29 cases. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 34(6), 463-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/15473317-34-6-463.

Salamanca, S., Santader-Baquero, A., Triana-García, P. A., Romero, S., & Rondón-Barragán, I. S. (2008). Tumor venéreo transmisible (TVT) con metástasis pulmonar: Reporte de caso. Orinoquia (Universidad Tecnologica de los Llanos Orientales), 12(2), 162-170.

Sánchez-Servín, A., Martínez, S., Córdova-Alarcon, E., & Fajardo, R. (2009). TP53 Polymorphisms allow for genetic sub-grouping of the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Journal of Veterinary Science (Suwon-si, Korea), 10(4), 353-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2009.10.4.353.

Santos do Amaral, A., Bassani-Silva, S., Ferreira, I., da Fonseca, L. S., de Andrade, F. H. E., Gaspar, L. F. J., & Rocha, N. S. (2007). Cytomorphological characterization of transmissible canine venereal tumor. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias, 103(8), 563-654.

Sauerbrey, M. L., Mullins, M. N., Bannink, E. O., Van Dorp, T. R., Kaneene, J. B., & Obradovich, J. E. (2007). Lomustine and prednisone as a first-line treatment for dogs with multicentric lymphoma: 17 cases (2004–2005). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 230(12), 1866-1869. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.230.12.1866.

Scarpelli, K. C., Valladão, M. L., & Metze, K. (2010). Predictive factors for the regression of canine transmissible venereal tumor during vincristine therapy. Veterinary Journal (London, England), 183(3), 362-363. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.11.009.

Spugnini, E. P., Dotsinsky, I., Mudrov, N., Citro, G., D’Avino, A., & Baldi, A. (2008). Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 27, 58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-27-58.

Sudjaidee, P., Theewasutrakul, P., Techarungchaikul, S., Ponglowhapan, S., & Chatdarong, K. (2012). Treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumor using vincristine sulfate combined with L-asparaginase in clinical vincristine-resistant cases: A case report. Wetchasan Sattawaphaet, 42, 117-122.

Thamm, D. H. (2019). Novel treatments for lymphoma. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 49(5), 903-915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2019.04.004.

Tripp, C. D., Fidel, J., Anderson, C. L., Patrick, M., Pratt, C., Sellon, R., & Bryan, J. N. (2011). Tolerability of metronomic administration of lomustine in dogs with cancer. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 25(2), 278-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0684.x.

Varela, Y. D. M., de Queiroz, G. F., Filgueira, K., Reis, F. C. D. C., & Lima, R. D. R. (2013). Transmissible extragenital venereal tumor in impuberal canine. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 6(3), 123-127.

Veldhoen, N., & Milner, J. (1998). Isolation of canine p53 cDNA and detailed characterization of the full length canine p53 protein. Oncogene, 16(8), 1077-1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1201863.

Woods, J. P. (2020) Canine venereal transmissible tumor. In D. Vail, D. H. Thamm & J. Liptak. Withrow and MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology (6th ed., pp 781-784). Elsevier.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Alicia Decuadro Barboza, Natalie Ruiz Algibay, Cecilia Menéndez Caorsi, Natalia Bartesaghi Villardino, Cecilia Amaral Oribe, Scott Brandl, Alejandro Benech Gulla