Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine was launched in 1979 as the official scientific periodical of the Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (SOMVERJ). </p> <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or their institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other legal purpose, without asking for prior permission from the editor or author, provided they are cited. The font is licensed by Creative Commons Attribution International CC-BY.</p> <p><strong>ISSN 0100-2430</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN-e 2527-2179.</strong></p> <p> </p> Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. en-US Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 0100-2430 Cervical ultrasound for endotracheal intubation confirmation in dogs by veterinary students: a cadaveric study <p>Although endotracheal intubation is usually a simple and fast procedure in dogs, some situations can be challenging and lead to the risk of tube misplacement in the esophagus—a life-threatening complication. Hence, confirming intubation is a cornerstone whenever this procedure is performed. Methods such as direct visualization or capnography present limitations insofar as they may be unreliable or unavailable under some circumstances. Ultrasound has emerged as a promising tool to confirm intubation in medicine. However, so far little research has been done on the subject in veterinary medicine. This study’s main goal was to investigate ultrasound performed by veterinary students as a confirmation method for intubation in canine cadavers after a brief training session (25 minutes). A total of 160 exams were performed with a microconvex probe by 20 students in 11 different cadavers on left and right recumbencies. Overall accuracy was 70.6% with a median success rate of 75% and a median time to diagnosis of 25 seconds. The number of correct diagnoses was statistically higher than the wrong ones (p&lt;0.05) without difference between recumbencies. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 72.5%, 68.8%, 69.9%, and 71.4%, respectively. The fastest diagnosis was performed in just 4 seconds, and among the top-performers, one student had 100% accuracy with a mean time to diagnosis of 16.8 seconds, and four students had approximately 88% accuracy. This study showed for the first time that even inexperienced veterinary students can have acceptable accuracy in confirming endotracheal intubation in dogs after a brief training session.</p> Bruno Augusto da Silva Rezende Nicolle Gouvêa Bottoni Ângelo Gustavo Novello de Oliveira Lucas Baptista Motta Fabio Sartori Eduardo Butturini de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2023 Bruno Augusto da Silva Rezende, Nicolle Gouvêa Bottoni, Ângelo Gustavo Novello de Oliveira, Lucas Baptista Motta, Fabio Sartori, Eduardo Butturini de Carvalho 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 45 e002623 e002623 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm002623 Threats to the conservation of the vulnerable giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in the Cerrado biome: a retrospective survey <p>In this study, we conducted a retrospective survey of 63 giant anteaters (<em>Myrmecophaga tridactyla</em>) using the Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil as reference site for wild animals. We analyzed the clinical records of 63 animals from January 2016 to February 2020. The information obtained included the location where the anteater was found, the reason for rescue, estimated life stage, gender, weight, general condition of the animal, clinical signs, diagnosis, and destination. Of the 63 animals, 30.15%, (n = 19/63) were found in rural areas, 25.40% (n = 16/63) in urban areas, and 22.22% (n = 14/63) near highways. The main reason for rescue was run-over accidents (n = 18/63, 28.60%). Regarding life stage distribution, 27% (n = 17/63) were cubs, 25.40% (n = 16/63) were adolescent, and 41.26% (n = 26/63) were adults. There was a higher frequency of females (n = 35/63, 56%), and three (9%) of them were pregnant or had cubs. For injury evaluation, three of the 63 giant anteaters were dead on arrival at the rehabilitation site; therefore, we excluded them from this aspect of the study. Of the 60 remaining anteaters, only 13.33% (n = 8/60) of the animals were healthy upon physical examination.The most common condition was traumatic brain injury (n = 32/60 53.33%), followed by fractures (n = 23/60, 38.33%), neonate triad (n = 15/60, 25%), and abrasions (n = 15/60, 25%). The animals presented a high mortality rate (n = 39/60, 65%). The animals presented a high mortality rate (39, 65%). The low number of giant anteaters reintroduced to their natural&nbsp;habitat and the high mortality rate of animals sent to rehabilitation centers show that the protection of giant anteaters is important to reduce the number of these animals sent to rehabilitation centers.</p> Nathana Beatriz Martins Nataly Nogueira Ribeiro Pinto Tainara Santana Galvão da Silva Aline Santana da Hora Copyright (c) 2023 Nathana Beatriz Martins, Nataly Nogueira Ribeiro Pinto, Tainara Santana Galvão da Silva, Aline Santana da Hora 2023-08-21 2023-08-21 45 e001023 e001023 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm001023 First report of parasitism by Eutrichophilus cercolabes (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) on Coendou spinosus (Erethizontidae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil – case report <p><em>Coendou spinosus </em>is a species of rodent popularly known as porcupine, it has a great ability to adapt to different habitats and is found in tropical forests in countries such as Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela and Guianas. This mammal has already been identified as a reservoir of several pathogenic agents for humans and other animals and has a variety of ectoparasites, endoparasites and hemoparasites little studied and described. Due to this, the objective was to report the parasitism by <em>Eutrichophilus cercolabes </em>in <em>C. spinosus </em>in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In total, 16 lice were found, one male and 15 females of the species. This is the first report of the parasitism of this Phthiraptera on <em>C. spinosus </em>in Rio Grande do Sul. The scarcity of reports on the taxonomy and biotic characteristics, as well as the vector capacity of pathogens of most species of ectoparasites of wild animals, highlights the need for further studies on the distribution of these arthropods in different regions and host species.</p> Julia Somavilla Lignon Diego Moscarelli Pinto Rafael Almeida Fighera Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro Copyright (c) 2023 Julia Somavilla Lignon, Diego Moscarelli Pinto, Rafael Almeida Fighera, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro 2023-08-21 2023-08-21 45 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm000823 Dogs infected by Dirofilaria immitis: a threat to the health of human and non-human animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil <p>This study aimed to investigate the presence of <em>Dirofilaria immitis </em>microfilaremia in dogs from two regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where heartworm infections are highly prevalent. Blood samples were collected from dogs aged &gt; 12 months, independent of the use of preventatives. All samples obtained and analyzed using Knott’s modified test by the investigators. A total of 133 blood samples were tested, and <em>D. immitis </em>microfilariae were detected in 29 of them, resulting in an occurrence of 21.8%. The percentage of dogs with microfilaremia detected raises concerns for pet families, one health professionals, and small animal practitioners. Microfilaremic dogs are the richest source of infection for the mosquitoes, increasing the risk of transmission. Therefore, the stakeholders in One Health must raise concerns regarding the health of wild animals, as wild canids and other species of wild animals are exposed to the risk of <em>D. immitis </em>infection. In addition, humans can get infected and develop human pulmonary dirofilariasis. In conclusion, the presence of dogs with microfilaremia potentiates opportunities for <em>D. immitis </em>transmission, exposing all animals, wild or domestic, human or non-human to the disease.</p> Bruno Alberigi Esmael Carvalho Junior Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida Norma Labarthe Fabio Barbour Scott Copyright (c) 2023 Bruno Alberigi, Esmael Carvalho Junior, Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida, Norma Labarthe, Fabio Barbour Scott 2023-07-25 2023-07-25 45 e001723 e001723 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm001723 Molecular detection of porcine circovirus (PCV2 and PCV3), torque teno swine virus 1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), and histopathological findings in swine organs submitted to regular slaughter in Southeast, Brazil <p>Porcine circovirus 2 and 3 (PCV2 and PCV3) and torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2) are important pathogens in pig associated with post-weaning mortality, different clinical syndromes in adults (PCVAD), and a decrease of average daily weight gain (PCV2-SI) but little is known about the infection on asymptomatic pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of PCV2, PCV3, TTSuV1, and TTSuVk2 in swine organ samples from asymptomatic pigs slaughtered in Espírito Santo State, Southeastern Brazil, through molecular detection and histopathological analysis. Nested PCR showed the presence of PCV2 DNA in 10% (14/140), PCV3 in 13.6% (19/140), TTSuV1 in 12.9% (18/140), and TTSuVk2 in 30% (42/140) of the tissue samples. All four viruses were detected in the lung, kidney, lymph node, and liver. TTSuVk2 was detecded in 30% (42/140), PCV3 in 13.6% (19/140), TTSuV1 in 12.9% (18/140), and PCV2 in 10% (14/140) of the samples. Single infections were observed in 30.7% (43/140), while co-detections in the same tissue occurred in 15.7% (22/140). The most frequent combinations were TTSuV1/TTSuVk2 in 31.8% (7/22), PCV2/TTSuVk2 in 18.1% (4/22), and PCV2/PCV3/TTSuVk2 in 13.6% (3/22). Lymphocyte depletion was associated with TTSuVk2 infection (p = 0.0041) suggesting that TTSuVK2 plays an induction of PMWS-like lymphoid lesions in pigs. The data obtained in this study show that PCV2, PCV3, TTSuV1, and TTSuVk2 are related to infection in asymptomatic animals with different tissue lesions, and the molecular diagnosis for these pathogens should be considered in the sanitary monitoring of herds.</p> Amanda Eduarda de Souza Ana Claudia de Menezes Cruz Ingrid Lyrio Rodrigues Eulógio Carlos Queiroz de Carvalho Rafael Brandão Varella Raphael Mansur Medina Rachel Bittencourt Ribeiro Rodrigues Renato Luiz Silveira Tatiana Xavier de Castro Copyright (c) 2023 Amanda Eduarda de Souza, Ana Claudia de Menezes Cruz, Ingrid Lyrio Rodrigues, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz de Carvalho, Rafael Brandão Varella, Raphael Mansur Medina, Rachel Bittencourt Ribeiro Rodrigues, Renato Luiz Silveira, Tatiana Xavier de Castro 2023-07-26 2023-07-26 45 e000623 e000623 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm000623