Anesthetic effects of the ketamine and midazolam association by intranasal or intramuscular route in domestic chickens: prospective, blinded, randomized and crossover study
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Keywords

conscious sedation, Gallus gallus, ketamine, benzodiazepine, birds.

How to Cite

Adão, F. M., Martins, I. D., dos Passos, Álvaro A. M. S., de Moraes, R. F. F., Balthazar, D. de A., & de Carvalho, E. B. (2024). Anesthetic effects of the ketamine and midazolam association by intranasal or intramuscular route in domestic chickens: prospective, blinded, randomized and crossover study. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 46, e005923. https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm005923

Abstract

This prospective, blinded, randomized crossover study aimed to assess the anesthetic effects of the combination of 30 mg/kg ketamine and 2 mg/kg midazolam via intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) routes in twelve domestic chickens. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate – RR, heart rate – HR, and cloacal temperature –Tºcloacal) were monitored throughout the experiment, along with recovery time and sedation level (S0: awake, no recumbency, responsive to stimuli; S1: blinking eyes, recumbency, relaxed, response to stimulus, mild movement; S2: open eyes, recumbency, relaxed, mild response to stimuli; S3: closed eyes, recumbency, relaxed, no movement). In the IM group, all birds reached S3, while in IN 5/12 reached S3, 4/12 reached at most S1, and 1/12 at most S2. IM administration showed higher sedation at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 35, 40, and 45 minutes (p<0.05). IN administration exhibited a shorter total recovery time (26.3±21.4 min vs. 92.9±33.4 min; p<0.001). No time, group, or time-group interaction effects were observed in HR and cloacal Tº, with a trend to a decrease in RR both groups (p<0.001). Increased incidences of vocalization and agitation was observed via IM (4/12 vs. 0/12; p=0.028), with no difference in salivation. Despite faster recovery with less agitation and vocalization, the ketamine and midazolam combination via IN provided less consistent sedation compared to the IM route in chickens.

https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm005923
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Copyright (c) 2024 Fernanda Meirelles Adão, Isabella Danon Martins, Álvaro Alberto Moura Sá dos Passos, Renata Fernandes Ferreira de Moraes, Daniel de Almeida Balthazar, Eduardo Butturini de Carvalho